Caplan-Fisher 20 条原则

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The bedside can be your laboratory: study the patient seriously.

床旁可以成为你的实验室:认真的研究患者

Describe quantitatively and precisely.

准确和定量的描述。

Pay particular attention to the specifics of the patient with a known condition and diagnosis; it will help later when similar phenomena occur in an unknown case.

应特别注意确诊疾病和确诊患者的特别之处:对以后诊断不明的,当类似现象发生时有帮助。

The details of the case are important: their analysis distinguishes the expert from the journeyman.

病例的细节尤为重要:对细节的分析可以区分专家和普通人

Settle issues as they arise at the bedside.

在床旁解决问题。

The clinical course of a condition is often key to arriving at a diagnosis.

疾病的临床发展过程通常是诊断疾病的关键。

Resist the temptation to prematurely place a case into a diagnostic cubbyhole that fits poorly.

抵制过早将病例放到不合适诊断小孔中的诱惑。

Make hypotheses and then try as hard as you can to disprove them: find the exception before accepting a hypothesis as valid in arriving.

进行假设并尽最大努力反驳:在接受一个假设有效之前先找到例外。

At a clinical diagnosis, think of the 5 most common findings (historical, physical examination, or laboratory) found in a given disorder; if at least 3 of these 5 are absent in a given patient, the diagnosis is likely to be wrong.

做一个临床诊断时,请考虑该疾病5个最常见的发现(病史,体格检查,或实验室检查);如果在一个患者里给定疾病的5个发现至少3个都不符合,那么诊断很可能是错误的。

Care of stroke and other patients is inherently simple.

卒中和其他患者的护理本来就很简单。

Collect and categorize phenomena: their mechanism and meaning may become clearer later if enough cases are gathered.

搜集和分类现象:当案例足够多的时候,他们的机制和意义可能会变得更加清晰。

Learn from your own past experiences and that of others (literature and experienced and respected colleagues).

向你过去的经历和其他人(文献,有经验和受人尊敬的同事)学习。

Be a good listener; even from the mouths of beginners may come wisdom.

做一个好的听众:即使是从初学者口中也可能传递智慧。

Fully accept what you have heard or read only when you have verified it yourselves.

你听到的和你所阅读的需在你验证之后方才可完全接受

Always be working on one or more projects: it will make the daily routine more meaningful.

始终在一个或多个项目上工作:这样将会使日常工作更有意义

Didactic talks benefit most the lecturer: we teach others best by listening, questioning, and demonstrating.

演讲使讲者受益最大:我们通过倾听、提问和展示赖最好的传授别人

Remain an eternal and eager student.

保持做一个持之以恒和饥渴的学生

Write often and carefully; let others gain from your work and ideas.

经常认真地写;让他人从您的工作和想法中受益

Maintain a lively interest in patients as people.

保持生动的兴趣在患者身上(是人,而非疾病)

 

 

 

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