Caplan-Fisher 20 条原则
The bedside can be your laboratory: study the patient seriously.
Describe quantitatively and precisely.
Pay particular attention to the specifics of the patient with a known condition and diagnosis; it will help later when similar phenomena occur in an unknown case.
The details of the case are important: their analysis distinguishes the expert from the journeyman.
Settle issues as they arise at the bedside.
The clinical course of a condition is often key to arriving at a diagnosis.
Resist the temptation to prematurely place a case into a diagnostic cubbyhole that fits poorly.
Make hypotheses and then try as hard as you can to disprove them: find the exception before accepting a hypothesis as valid in arriving.
At a clinical diagnosis, think of the 5 most common findings (historical, physical examination, or laboratory) found in a given disorder; if at least 3 of these 5 are absent in a given patient, the diagnosis is likely to be wrong.
Care of stroke and other patients is inherently simple.
Collect and categorize phenomena: their mechanism and meaning may become clearer later if enough cases are gathered.
Learn from your own past experiences and that of others (literature and experienced and respected colleagues).
Be a good listener; even from the mouths of beginners may come wisdom.
Fully accept what you have heard or read only when you have verified it yourselves.
Always be working on one or more projects: it will make the daily routine more meaningful.
Didactic talks benefit most the lecturer: we teach others best by listening, questioning, and demonstrating.
Remain an eternal and eager student.
Write often and carefully; let others gain from your work and ideas.
Maintain a lively interest in patients as people.